According to the DDS, the number of unreported cases is estimated to be 3.5 million

In India and China, too, the number of people suffering from diabetes is exploding.

No specific symptoms

The cause: The metabolism gets mixed up due to a high-calorie and high-fat diet and a lack of exercise. This can lead to diabetes. Many type 2 diabetics have had no specific symptoms for years. In contrast to type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes is practically never associated with weight loss and only rarely with increased urination and a feeling of thirst. Frequently, however, are unspecific signs such as tiredness, weakness, constant feeling of hunger, weight gain and depressed mood. Since these symptoms match almost any other disease, the diagnosis is often made by chance after years. More on the subject of health: sugary drinks Diabetes through LimoFit into old age The most important answers to cholesterolLook for easy and tasty cooking recipes

Almost 100 Germans get diabetes every day. (Photo: imago) The number of diabetics in Germany continues to rise: almost 1,000 German citizens are newly diagnosed with diabetes every day. This is reported by the German Diabetes Foundation (DDS). With around eight million people affected, most of the type 2 diabetics live in Europe. The bad thing about this disease: Because it doesn’t hurt, many people don’t even know that they are diabetic. According to the DDS, the number of unreported cases is estimated to be 3.5 million.

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Being overweight makes diabetes more likely

The majority of diabetics suffer from type 2 diabetes, known as adult diabetes. In most cases, an unhealthy lifestyle is responsible for their development: Too little exercise, an unhealthy diet, obesity or stress are the main risk factors. Type 1 diabetes, on the other hand, is usually inherited or caused by autoimmune diseases.

Diabetes symptoms often go unnoticed

The dangerous thing about type 2 diabetes: it develops slowly. It often takes six or seven years for the first symptoms to appear. And because the symptoms are not clear, many do not realize that they are affected. For example, tiredness, weakness, constant feeling of hunger or depression can indicate an illness. Often, however, diabetes is only discovered by chance through a secondary disease such as heart disease or a heart attack.

Eating healthy and exercising prevents adult-onset diabetes

The main reason for the rise in diabetes is that more and more people are eating too badly and too little exercise. Most diabetics could fight their disease on their own – if they exercise regularly. This was the result of a study by the Heidelberg sports scientist Gerhard Huber. Other studies show that in addition to exercise, healthy eating can at least delay diabetes.

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Gestational diabetes, known as gestational diabetes, is one of the most common diseases during pregnancy. In Germany, almost four percent of pregnant women are affected. The mother’s diabetes is not always without consequences for the child.

The hormonal changes during pregnancy can cause blood sugar levels to rise. Put simply: Especially in the later course of pregnancy, certain hormones ensure that more glucose (sugar) is made available in the body. Then the pancreas has to secrete more insulin in order to lower the blood sugar level and to transport the glucose into the cells. When the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin, blood sugar levels remain too high.

Risk factors for developing gestational diabetes

Women are at increased risk of gestational diabetes with the following factors:

Overweight age over 30 years familial predisposition to diabetes type 2 pregnancy diabetes during an earlier pregnancy massive weight gain during pregnancy previous birth of a child with more than 4000 grams birth weight own birth weight over 4000 grams multiple miscarriages

This is how gestational diabetes affects both mother and child

In the expectant mother, gestational diabetes is often associated with high blood pressure and excessive protein concentration in the urine, which promotes urinary tract infections. The unborn child receives an excess of carbohydrates via the placenta and umbilical cord and puts on excessive weight. It also compensates for the high sugar level through increased insulin production.

Despite the rapid growth in the womb, maturation disorders occur, especially in the development of the lungs. The increased weight of the unborn child promotes pregnancy problems, premature births and birth complications. In addition, the child later has a greatly increased risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

Blood sugar addiction test is part of prenatal care

Symptoms of gestational diabetes include being very thirsty, going to the toilet frequently, or having an unusually large baby. Nevertheless, gestational diabetes often goes unnoticed. Therefore, a blood sugar addiction test between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy is now one of the preventive examinations that are paid for by health insurance. First of all, the pregnant woman’s blood sugar level is measured after she has been given a solution containing sugar. If the result is abnormal, another test follows, in which the blood sugar level is measured first on an empty stomach and then one and two hours after ingestion of 75 grams of glucose.

The following limit values ​​apply to the diagnosis:

fasting: 92 mg / dl (5.1 nmol / l) after one hour: 180 mg / dl (10 nmol / l) after two hours: 155 mg / dl (8.5 nmol / l)

If either value is exceeded, gestational diabetes is present.

The diet needs to be changed

Gestational diabetes must be treated promptly. In most cases, the increased blood sugar levels can be normalized by changing your diet and getting enough exercise. Those affected should avoid sweet lemonades and fruit juices as well as foods containing white flour and instead consume foods rich in fiber in several small portions. Exercise is also very important.

Although being overweight can be a cause of gestational diabetes, weight loss should not be attempted during pregnancy, as the child needs enough energy to grow. A permanent reduction is possible during breastfeeding. This makes it particularly easy to lose weight, as part of the energy absorbed is given off to the newborn.

Treat gestational diabetes with insulin

If the change in diet is not enough and the sugar levels remain high for an unusually long time after eating, for example, insulin therapy is necessary. It is often sufficient to supply the body with small amounts of short-acting insulin before meals. In some cases, the short-acting insulin can also be supplemented with a long-acting insulin. It is injected in the morning and in the evening and covers the basic need for the hormone.

Too high a dosage can cause hypoglycaemia and thus serious consequences for the child. The mother should therefore be fully informed and trained by the doctor in order to choose the correct dose.

It has not yet been clarified whether the administration of antidiabetic drugs has negative effects on pregnancy. Oral ingestion in tablet form is therefore not permitted. In some countries, the active ingredient metformin is allowed, but in Germany it is only administered in exceptional cases and after adequate information.

Study: Every second person affected later develops type 2 diabetes

Even if the mother’s blood sugar level has returned to the normal range after giving birth, she should have the values ​​checked regularly, advises the German Diabetes Society (DGG). The recommendation is based on a study from South Korea, which was published in the "Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism" has been published. According to this, every second woman with gestational diabetes develops type 2 diabetes within eight years of giving birth. Researchers have found comparable results for Germany.

Prevention: How to reduce the risk of diabetes

It makes sense to have a first test six to twelve weeks after the birth. If the value is not abnormal, further checks every second or third year are sufficient. In this way, an impending illness can be recognized at an early stage. Still, type 2 diabetes is not an inevitable fate. Women with gestational diabetes who breastfeed their child have a 40 percent reduced risk. A healthy, balanced diet and a normal body weight are also preventative.

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The same rules apply to prevent gestational diabetes. If you are severely overweight, you may be able to prevent and prevent gestational diabetes by eating a balanced diet right from the start, getting plenty of exercise, and trying not to gain excess weight during pregnancy. Eat lots of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables.

Important warning signs: These are symptoms of diabetes

According to a study by scientists from the University of London who im "British Medical Journal" appeared, pregnant women on a low-calorie diet had a 60 percent lower risk of developing gestational diabetes than a control group.

Diabetes should be detected as early as possible. (Photo: imago) Diabetes is a widespread disease in Germany. According to estimates by the German Diabetic Association (DBB), around ten million Germans have diabetes – three million of them without knowing it. A creeping danger, because if not treated there is a risk of serious consequential damage. Among other things, brain performance in type 2 diabetes decreases very early after the onset of the disease, scientists from the University of Alberta found. In particular, logical thinking, planning and organizational skills as well as attention decline. The memory, however, is hardly affected.

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Younger people with diabetes are also affected

The Canadian researchers found that brain losses are particularly severe shortly after the onset of the disease. The age of the test subjects, on the other hand, does not play a role. The scientists evaluated the data from 41 type 2 diabetics and 424 healthy study participants between 53 and 90 years of age. “The good news is that, especially in older diabetics, the cognitive impairments are barely noticeable in everyday life,” says Roger Dixon, co-author of the study. In contrast, with demanding technical and psychomotor tasks, a significantly slower performance can be observed. This could indicate the beginning of a progressive decline in intellectual performance, said Dixon.

Symptoms often go unnoticed

The problem is that younger patients in particular often do not notice the disease. "The disease creeps up slowly, over six or seven years, and many don’t notice"says DDB President Heinz Windisch. The symptoms are also hardly tangible: tiredness, weakness, constant feeling of hunger or depression. Diabetes is usually only discovered through secondary illnesses – for example heart disease or even a heart attack. Sometimes doctors also discover the disease through blood tests. In these cases, it often turns out that the patient has been suffering from diabetes for several years, according to the DDB.

Healthy eating and exercise against adult diabetes

The main reasons for the rise in diabetes in the population are an unhealthy diet and too little exercise. "It’s also a disease of affluence. Many people pay far too little attention to their diet. If there is still a lack of movement, you open the door to metabolic disease", explains Windisch. Numerous studies have shown that diabetes can at least be delayed through healthy eating and exercise.

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Anyone with type 2 diabetes should try to change their lifestyle. Above all, exercise and a healthier diet are on the new life plan. But which is the right one – low-fat or Mediterranean? According to the “Ärztezeitung”, Italian researchers have investigated this question. Result: Those who opt for the Mediterranean diet need less medication.

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Study participants received a Mediterranean diet or a low-fat diet

The study examined 215 overweight people who had recently been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Dario Giugliano and his colleagues from the Second University in Naples divided the subjects into two groups. Half of the participants were on a Mediterranean diet with less than 50 percent of their daily calories from carbohydrates. The other participants were given a low-fat diet with less than 30 percent of the calories from fat. The study spanned four years.

Less medication required according to the Mediterranean diet

The researchers wanted to use the study to find out to what extent this type of diet affected the amount of medication required and thus had an influence on the subsequent drug therapy. Of the patients on the Mediterranean diet, 44 percent had to be treated with medication. 70 percent were on a low-fat diet. The participants on the Mediterranean diet had also lost more weight.

Fish instead of fatty meat

Mediterranean foods are mostly low in animal fats, which damage blood vessels. This cuisine with plenty of olive oil is particularly popular in southern Europe. Fish is eaten instead of fatty meat. The ingredients are fresh, ready meals are taboo.